Is colombia a free country
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Additionally, it will highlight the countries you can travel to with a visa on arrival or via an Electronic Travel Authorization (eTA). Please keep in mind that. Colombia: Introduction. Colombia is a country in northwestern South America that borders the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea. Neighboring countries include. The review period was marked by paradoxical trends and new challenges. The landmark peace agreement in between the Colombian government and the FARC.
Colombia Passport Visa Free Countries List .
Saudi Arabia. Sierra Leone. Solomon Islands. South Africa. South Korea. South Sudan. Sri Lanka. Vincent and the Grenadines. Trinidad and Tobago. United Arab Emirates. United Kingdom. United States of America. US Virgin Islands. Country Flag View Details. Country Map View Details. Special Country Products Country Summary. Travel Facts. Locator Map View Details. Introduction Background Colombia was one of the three countries that emerged after the dissolution of Gran Colombia in the others are Ecuador and Venezuela.
Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic. Definitions and Notes. Geographic coordinates 4 00 N, 72 00 W. Map references South America.
Area total: 1,, sq km land: 1,, sq km water: , sq km note: includes Isla de Malpelo, Roncador Cay, and Serrana Bank country comparison to the world: Area – comparative slightly less than twice the size of Texas Area comparison map.
Land boundaries total: 6, km border countries 5 : Brazil 1, km; Ecuador km; Panama km; Peru 1, km; Venezuela 2, km. Maritime claims territorial sea: 12 nm exclusive economic zone: nm continental shelf: m depth or to the depth of exploitation. Climate tropical along coast and eastern plains; cooler in highlands.
Terrain flat coastal lowlands, central highlands, high Andes Mountains, eastern lowland plains Llanos. Elevation highest point: Pico Cristobal Colon 5, m lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m mean elevation: m. Natural resources petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore, nickel, gold, copper, emeralds, hydropower.
Land use agricultural land: Irrigated land 10, sq km Major rivers by length in km Rio Negro river source shared with Venezuela and Brazil [m] – 2, km; Orinoco shared with Venezuela [s] – 2, km note — [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth.
Major watersheds area sq km Atlantic Ocean drainage: Amazon 6,, sq km , Orinoco , sq km. Major aquifers Amazon Basin. Natural hazards highlands subject to volcanic eruptions; occasional earthquakes; periodic droughts volcanism: Galeras 4, m is one of Colombia’s most active volcanoes, having erupted in and causing major evacuations; it has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth’s Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; Nevado del Ruiz 5, m , km 80 mi west of Bogota, erupted in producing lahars mudflows that killed 23, people; the volcano last erupted in ; additionally, after years of dormancy, Nevado del Huila reawakened in and has experienced frequent eruptions since then; other historically active volcanoes include Cumbal, Dona Juana, Nevado del Tolima, and Purace.
Map description Colombia map showing major cities as well as parts of surrounding countries and the North Pacific Ocean. People and Society Population 49,, est. Nationality noun: Colombian s adjective: Colombian. Ethnic groups Mestizo and White Spanish audio sample:. Religions Christian Demographic profile Colombia is in the midst of a demographic transition resulting from steady declines in its fertility, mortality, and population growth rates.
Age structure years: Dependency ratios total dependency ratio: Median age total: Population growth rate 0. Birth rate Death rate 7. Net migration rate Major urban areas – population Covering an area of 1,, sq. As observed on the map, the Colombian Andes dominates the landscape in the western part of the country. To the east of the Andes mountain ranges lies the savannas; while the Amazon rainforest is situated in the far south-eastern part of the country. Located in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta mountain range in the extreme northern part of the country is, the Pico Cristobal Colon – the highest peak in Colombia, which rises to an elevation of 18,ft.
It is closely followed by the Pico Simon Bolivar, at an elevation of 18,ft. Mercenaries and multinational corporations such as Chiquita Brands International are some of the international actors that have contributed to the violence of the conflict.
Beginning in the mids Colombian drug cartels became major producers, processors and exporters of illegal drugs , primarily marijuana and cocaine. On 4 July , a new Constitution was promulgated. The changes generated by the new constitution are viewed as positive by Colombian society.
In June , Ivan Duque , the candidate of the right-wing Democratic Center party, won the presidential election. Colombia’s relations with Venezuela have fluctuated due to ideological differences between the two governments. In January , Colombia rejected Maduro’s proposal that the two countries would restore diplomatic relations.
Protests started on 28 April when the government proposed a tax bill which would greatly expand the range of the 19 percent value-added tax. The 19 June election run-off vote ended in a win for former guerrilla, Gustavo Petro , taking The geography of Colombia is characterized by its six main natural regions that present their own unique characteristics, from the Andes mountain range region shared with Ecuador and Venezuela; the Pacific Coastal region shared with Panama and Ecuador; the Caribbean coastal region shared with Venezuela and Panama; the Llanos plains shared with Venezuela; the Amazon rainforest region shared with Venezuela, Brazil, Peru and Ecuador; to the insular area , comprising islands in both the Atlantic and Pacific oceans.
Colombia is bordered to the northwest by Panama , to the east by Venezuela and Brazil, and to the south by Ecuador and Peru ;  it established its maritime boundaries with neighboring countries through seven agreements on the Caribbean Sea and three on the Pacific Ocean. Part of the Ring of Fire , a region of the world subject to earthquakes and volcanic eruptions ,  in the interior of Colombia the Andes are the prevailing geographical feature.
Most of Colombia’s population centers are located in these interior highlands. Peaks in the Cordillera Occidental exceed 4, m 15, ft , and in the Cordillera Central and Cordillera Oriental they reach 5, m 16, ft. East of the Andes lies the savanna of the Llanos , part of the Orinoco River basin, and in the far southeast, the jungle of the Amazon rainforest.
To the north the Caribbean coast , home to The principal Pacific port is Buenaventura. Colombia has four main drainage systems: the Pacific drain, the Caribbean drain, the Orinoco Basin and the Amazon Basin.
Protected areas and the «National Park System» cover an area of about 14,, hectares , The climate of Colombia is characterized for being tropical presenting variations within six natural regions and depending on the altitude, temperature, humidity , winds and rainfall. Mountain climate is one of the unique features of the Andes and other high altitude reliefs where climate is determined by elevation. About Above 4, meters 13, ft , where temperatures are below freezing, the climate is glacial , a zone of permanent snow and ice.
Colombia is one of the megadiverse countries in biodiversity ,  ranking first in bird species. Colombia is the country with the planet’s highest biodiversity, having the highest rate of species by area as well as the largest number of endemisms species that are not found naturally anywhere else of any country. Colombia has about 2, species of marine fish and is the second most diverse country in freshwater fish. It is also the country with the most endemic species of butterflies , is first in orchid species, and has approximately 7, species of beetles.
Colombia is second in the number of amphibian species and is the third most diverse country in reptiles and palms. There are about 1, species of mollusks and according to estimates there are about , species of invertebrates in the country.
In Colombia there are 32 terrestrial biomes and types of ecosystems. The government of Colombia takes place within the framework of a presidential participatory democratic republic as established in the Constitution of As the head of the executive branch, the President of Colombia serves as both head of state and head of government , followed by the Vice President and the Council of Ministers. The president is elected by popular vote to serve a single four-year term In , Colombia’s Congress approved the repeal of a constitutional amendment that changed the one-term limit for presidents to a two-term limit.
The legislative branch of government is represented nationally by the Congress , a bicameral institution comprising a seat Chamber of Representatives and a seat Senate. The judicial branch is headed by four high courts ,  consisting of the Supreme Court which deals with penal and civil matters, the Council of State , which has special responsibility for administrative law and also provides legal advice to the executive, the Constitutional Court , responsible for assuring the integrity of the Colombian constitution, and the Superior Council of Judicature , responsible for auditing the judicial branch.
His term as Colombia’s president ran for four years, beginning on 7 August In , Colombia elected Gustavo Petro, who became its first leftist leader,  and Francia Marquez , who was the first black person elected as Vice President. The foreign affairs of Colombia are headed by the President, as head of state, and managed by the Minister of Foreign Affairs.
Colombia was one of the four founding members of the Pacific Alliance , which is a political, economic and co-operative integration mechanism that promotes the free circulation of goods, services, capital and persons between the members, as well as a common stock exchange and joint embassies in several countries. The executive branch of government is responsible for managing the defense of Colombia, with the President commander-in-chief of the armed forces.
The Ministry of Defence exercises day-to-day control of the military and the Colombian National Police. Colombia has , active military personnel.
Colombia’s armed forces are the largest in Latin America, and it is the second largest spender on its military after Brazil. The National Police functions as a gendarmerie , operating independently from the military as the law enforcement agency for the entire country.
Colombia has a very high crime rate due to being a center for the cultivation and trafficking of cocaine. The national police force of Colombia are the National Police of Colombia. Departments are subdivided into municipalities , each of which is assigned a municipal seat, and municipalities are in turn subdivided into corregimientos in rural areas and into comunas in urban areas. Each department has a local government with a governor and assembly directly elected to four-year terms, and each municipality is headed by a mayor and council.
There is a popularly elected local administrative board in each of the corregimientos or comunas. In addition to the capital, four other cities have been designated districts in effect special municipalities , on the basis of special distinguishing features. Some departments have local administrative subdivisions, where towns have a large concentration of population and municipalities are near each other for example, in Antioquia and Cundinamarca.
Colombia is a highly urbanized country with Historically an agrarian economy, Colombia urbanized rapidly in the 20th century, by the end of which just Consumption expenditure by households is the largest component of GDP. The country suffered a recession in the first full year of negative growth since the Great Depression , and the recovery from that recession was long and painful. However, in recent years growth has been impressive, reaching 6. Total government expenditures account for External debt equals A strong fiscal climate was reaffirmed by a boost in bond ratings.
The financial sector has grown favorably due to good liquidity in the economy, the growth of credit and the positive performance of the Colombian economy.
Colombia is rich in natural resources, and it is heavily dependent on energy and mining exports. Non-traditional exports have boosted the growth of Colombian foreign sales as well as the diversification of destinations of export thanks to new free trade agreements. The multidimensional poverty rate stands at Tourism generated , jobs 2. In agriculture, Colombia is one of the 5 largest producers in the world of coffee , avocado and palm oil , and one of the 10 largest producers in the world of sugarcane , banana , pineapple and cocoa.
The country also has considerable production of rice , potato and cassava. Although it is not the largest coffee producer in the world since it is up to Brazil , the country has been able to carry out, for decades, a global marketing campaign to add value to the country’s product.
Colombian palm oil production is one of the most sustainable on the planet, compared to the largest existing producers. Colombia is also among the 20 largest producers in the world of beef and chicken meat. Colombia is also the 2nd largest flower exporter in the world, after the Netherlands. In , it extracted Currently, the country is among the 25 largest gold producers in the world. In , Colombia had , km , mi of roads, 32, km 20, mi of which were paved.
At the end of , the country had around 2, km 1, mi of duplicated highways. The target of Colombia’s government is to build 7, km of roads for the — period and reduce travel times by 30 per cent and transport costs by 20 per cent. Colombia is a middle-income country. The electricity production in Colombia comes mainly from Renewable energy sources. Colombia has more than 3, research groups in science and technology.
Colombia was ranked 67th in the Global Innovation Index in Important inventions related to medicine have been made in Colombia, such as the first external artificial pacemaker with internal electrodes , invented by the electronics engineer Jorge Reynolds Pombo , invention of great importance for those who suffer from heart failure. Also invented in Colombia were the microkeratome and keratomileusis technique, which form the fundamental basis of what now is known as LASIK one of the most important techniques for the correction of refractive errors of vision and the Hakim valve for the treatment of Hydrocephalus.
Some leading Colombian scientists are Joseph M. With an estimated 50 million people in , Colombia is the third-most populous country in Latin America, after Brazil and Mexico. The population growth rate for is estimated to be 0. The proportion of older persons in the total population has begun to increase substantially.
The population is concentrated in the Andean highlands and along the Caribbean coast , also the population densities are generally higher in the Andean region. As of [update] Colombia has the world’s largest populations of internally displaced persons IDPs , estimated to be up to 4.
The life expectancy is More than Including Spanish, a total of languages are listed for Colombia in the Ethnologue database. The specific number of spoken languages varies slightly since some authors consider as different languages what others consider to be varieties or dialects of the same language. Best estimates recorded 71 languages that are spoken in-country today — most of which belong to the Chibchan , Tucanoan , Bora—Witoto , Guajiboan , Arawakan , Cariban , Barbacoan , and Saliban language families.
There are currently about , speakers of native languages. Human biological diversity and ethnicity- Census . Colombia is ethnically diverse, its people descending from the original native inhabitants, Spanish colonists, Africans originally brought to the country as slaves, and 20th-century immigrants from Europe and the Middle East , all contributing to a diverse cultural heritage.
The populations of the major cities also include mestizos. Mestizo campesinos people living in rural areas also live in the Andean highlands where some Spanish conquerors mixed with the women of Amerindian chiefdoms.
Mestizos include artisans and small tradesmen that have played a major part in the urban expansion of recent decades. The census reported that the «non-ethnic population», consisting of whites and mestizos those of mixed European and Amerindian ancestry , constituted Indigenous Amerindians constitute 4.
Raizal people constitute 0. Palenquero people constitute 0. Many of the Indigenous peoples experienced a reduction in population during the Spanish rule  and many others were absorbed into the mestizo population, but the remainder currently represents over eighty distinct cultures. Reserves resguardos established for indigenous peoples occupy 30,, hectares , In , Colombia signed and ratified the current international law concerning indigenous peoples, Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention, Sub-Saharan Africans were brought as slaves , mostly to the coastal lowlands, beginning early in the 16th century and continuing into the 19th century.
Large Afro-Colombian communities are found today on the Pacific Coast. A number of other Europeans and North Americans migrated to the country in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, including people from the former USSR during and after the Second World War.
Many immigrant communities have settled on the Caribbean coast, in particular recent immigrants from the Middle East and Europe. Barranquilla the largest city of the Colombian Caribbean and other Caribbean cities have the largest populations of Lebanese , Palestinian , and other Levantines.
Some 4. The remaining people either did not respond or replied that they did not know. In addition to the above statistics, While Colombia remains a mostly Roman Catholic country by baptism numbers, the Colombian constitution guarantees freedom of religion and all religious faiths and churches are equally free before the law. Colombia lies at the crossroads of Latin America and the broader American continent, and as such has been hit by a wide range of cultural influences. Native American , Spanish and other European , African , American , Caribbean , and Middle Eastern influences, as well as other Latin American cultural influences, are all present in Colombia’s modern culture.
Urban migration, industrialization, globalization, and other political, social and economic changes have also left an impression. Many national symbols , both objects and themes, have arisen from Colombia’s diverse cultural traditions and aim to represent what Colombia, and the Colombian people, have in common.
Cultural expressions in Colombia are promoted by the government through the Ministry of Culture. Colombian literature dates back to pre-Columbian era; a notable example of the period is the epic poem known as the Legend of Yurupary. Colombian art has over 3, years of history.
Colombian artists have captured the country’s changing political and cultural backdrop using a range of styles and mediums. There is archeological evidence of ceramics being produced earlier in Colombia than anywhere else in the Americas, dating as early as 3, BCE.
The earliest examples of gold craftsmanship have been attributed to the Tumaco people  of the Pacific coast and date to around BCE. They erected raised ceremonial centers, sarcophagi , and large stone monoliths depicting anthropomorphic and zoomorphic forms out of stone. Colombian art has followed the trends of the time, so during the 16th to 18th centuries, Spanish Catholicism had a huge influence on Colombian art, and the popular baroque style was replaced with rococo when the Bourbons ascended to the Spanish crown.
Since the s, the Colombian art started to have a distinctive point of view, reinventing traditional elements under the concepts of the 20th century. Carlos Correa, with his paradigmatic «Naturaleza muerta en silencio» silent dead nature , combines geometrical abstraction and cubism.
The Colombian sculpture from the sixteenth to 18th centuries was mostly devoted to religious depictions of ecclesiastic art, strongly influenced by the Spanish schools of sacred sculpture.
During the early period of the Colombian republic, the national artists were focused in the production of sculptural portraits of politicians and public figures, in a plain neoclassicist trend. Colombian photography was marked by the arrival of the daguerreotype. Jean-Baptiste Louis Gros was who brought the daguerreotype process to Colombia in The Piloto public library has Latin America’s largest archive of negatives, containing 1.
The Colombian press has promoted the work of the cartoonists. In recent decades, fanzines , internet and independent publishers have been fundamental to the growth of the comic in Colombia. Throughout the times, there have been a variety of architectural styles , from those of indigenous peoples to contemporary ones, passing through colonial military and religious , Republican, transition and modern styles.
Ancient habitation areas, longhouses, crop terraces , roads as the Inca road system , cemeteries, hypogeums and necropolises are all part of the architectural heritage of indigenous peoples. The National Capitol is a great representative of romanticism. The Caribbean architecture acquires a strong Arabic influence. Deco style, modern neoclassicism , eclecticism folklorist and art deco ornamental resources significantly influenced the architecture of Colombia, especially during the transition period.
The contemporary architecture of Colombia is designed to give greater importance to the materials , this architecture takes into account the specific natural and artificial geographies and is also an architecture that appeals to the senses. Colombia has a vibrant collage of talent that touches a full spectrum of rhythms. Musicians, composers, music producers and singers from Colombia are recognized internationally such as Shakira , Juanes , Carlos Vives and others.
Colombia has a diverse and dynamic musical environment. The music from the Pacific coast , such as the currulao , is characterized by its strong use of drums instruments such as the native marimba , the conunos, the bass drum , the side drum , and the cuatro guasas or tubular rattle.
An important rhythm of the south region of the Pacific coast is the contradanza it is used in dance shows due to the striking colours of the costumes. Important musical rhythms of the Andean Region are the danza dance of Andean folklore arising from the transformation of the European contredance , the bambuco it is played with guitar, tiple  and mandolin , the rhythm is danced by couples , the pasillo a rhythm inspired by the Austrian waltz and the Colombian «danza», the lyrics have been composed by well-known poets , the guabina the tiple , the bandola and the requinto are the basic instruments , the sanjuanero it originated in Tolima and Huila Departments, the rhythm is joyful and fast.
The instruments that distinguish the music of the Eastern Plains are the harp , the cuatro a type of four-stringed guitar and maracas. Important rhythms of this region are the joropo a fast rhythm and there is also tapping as a result of its flamenco ancestry and the galeron it is heard a lot while cowboys are working. The music of the Amazon region is strongly influenced by the indigenous religious practices.
Some popular archipelago rhythms are the Schottische , the Calypso , the Polka and the Mento. Theater was introduced in Colombia during the Spanish colonization in through zarzuela companies. Colombian theater is supported by the Ministry of Culture and a number of private and state owned organizations. Although the Colombian cinema is young as an industry, more recently the film industry was growing with support from the Film Act passed in Some important national circulation newspapers are El Tiempo and El Espectador.
Television in Colombia has two privately owned TV networks and three state-owned TV networks with national coverage, as well as six regional TV networks and dozens of local TV stations. Private channels, RCN and Caracol are the highest-rated.
The regional channels and regional newspapers cover a department or more and its content is made in these particular areas. Colombia has three major national radio networks : Radiodifusora Nacional de Colombia , a state-run national radio; Caracol Radio and RCN Radio , privately owned networks with hundreds of affiliates.
There are other national networks, including Cadena Super , Todelar , and Colmundo. Many hundreds of radio stations are registered with the Ministry of Information Technologies and Communications. Colombia’s varied cuisine is influenced by its diverse fauna and flora as well as the cultural traditions of the ethnic groups. Colombian dishes and ingredients vary widely by region.
Some of the most common ingredients are: cereals such as rice and maize; tubers such as potato and cassava ; assorted legumes ; meats, including beef, chicken, pork and goat; fish; and seafood.
Among the most representative appetizers and soups are patacones fried green plantains , sancocho de gallina chicken soup with root vegetables and ajiaco potato and corn soup. Representative side dishes are papas chorreadas potatoes with cheese , remolachas rellenas con huevo duro beets stuffed with hard-boiled egg and arroz con coco coconut rice.